Account for the stochasticity of working with live organisms in interpreting experimental data (Lab). [BIOL 2040] Analyze data using basic statistical techniques (mean, standard deviation, n, chi-square test). [BIOL 1010] [BIOL 1011] [BIOL 1030] Apply simple statistical tests to experimental data (Lab). [BIOL 2040] Apply the breeder’s equation in its simplest format. [BIOL 2040] Calculate membrane potentials from ion concentrations and permeabilities [BIOL 3079] Calculate systemic blood flow caused by changes in resistance in the cardiovascular system [BIOL 3079] Calculate the rate of gas transport using the equation for convective transport [BIOL 3079] Collect both quantitative and qualitative data through careful observations [BIOL 1010] [BIOL 1011] [BIOL 1030] Construct scientific drawings with scale bars [BIOL 2004] Evaluate evidence relating to simple cases of evolution of novel characters. [BIOL 2040] Explain how humans are altering the global nitrogen (biogeochemical) cycle [BIOL 1011] Explain the basic mechanism(s) by which evolutionarily novel characters (e.g. wings, eyes, blood clotting, flagellae) arise. [BIOL 2040] Explain the basic mechanisms of speciation. [BIOL 2040] Explain the concept of heritability in terms of the genetic vs. environmental variance for a trait [BIOL 2040] Explain the principle of QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) mapping and apply it to single locus analysis [BIOL 3044] Interpret data (e.g., graphs and tables) to assess hypotheses and generate conclusions [BIOL 1010] [BIOL 1011] [BIOL 1030] Interpret evidence to determine which mechanisms might be acting in simple cases of speciation. [BIOL 2040] Perform a one-way ANOVA [BIOL 3044] Predict/interpret the outcome of a hybrid cross (inter or intraspecific) for the early generation hybrids (F1, F2, BC) in terms of additive, dominance and epistatic interactions. [BIOL 3044] Predict the effects of each evolutionary force on allele and genotype frequencies in a given situation and for combinations of two evolutionary forces (calculate the change for simple situations – qualitative predictions for situations involving two evolutionary forces. [BIOL 2040] Predict the magnitude and direction of water and ion flow across gills, kidneys, body surfaces and the gut in various phyla [BIOL 3079] Predict the mean and variance of a quantitative trait from allelic frequencies and effects. [BIOL 3044] Predict the time course of mechanical events in simple cardiovascular pumps [BIOL 3079] Report data using written descriptions, graphs, tables, and sketches [BIOL 1010] [BIOL 1011] [BIOL 1030] Use mathematical analysis to evaluate the effects of interspecific competition and to determine population size and growth patterns. [BIOL 1011] Use raw data to produce summary statistics and plots [BIOL 2003] Use simple models to describe unlimited (exponential) and limited (logistic) population growth [BIOL 1011] [BIOL 1030] Use the Hardy-Weinberg principle to calculate expected genotype and allele frequencies (1 Locus, 2 Alleles) [BIOL 1010]