BIOL 2040

Apply simple statistics, including chi-squared and t-tests Define Mendelâ€™s two laws of heredity that explain the transmission of traits from one generation to the next [BIOL 1010] [BIOL 1030] Explain statistical deviation Recall basic mathematical concepts and techniques: logarithms, exponentials, solving simple algebraic equations, slopes and intercepts, graphing and interpreting simple graphs Analyze data using basic statistical techniques (mean, standard deviation, n, chi-square test). [BIOL 1010] [BIOL 1011] [BIOL 1030] Apply the breederâ€™s equation in its simplest format. [BIOL 2040] Define/explain evolutionary (Darwinian) Fitness [BIOL 2040] Explain the basic process of evolution by natural selection (following from what are sometimes called Darwin's postulates). [BIOL 2040] Explain the concept of heritability in terms of the genetic vs. environmental variance for a trait [BIOL 2040] Explain/recognize adaptations. [BIOL 2040] Generate and interpret appropriate tables and graphs used to represent data [BIOL 2020] Interpret data (e.g., graphs and tables) to assess hypotheses and generate conclusions [BIOL 1010] [BIOL 1011] [BIOL 1030] Use the Hardy-Weinberg principle to calculate expected genotype and allele frequencies (1 Locus, 2 Alleles) [BIOL 1010]

Define/recognize genotype-by-environment interactionsExtend the concept of trade-offs to local adaptation and the evolution of specialists and generalists (and, as always, interpret evidence)Predict ecological outcomes of hybridizationRecognize faulty experimental designs and diagnoseApply the breeders equation in its simple form to any set of observations (i.e. calculate any of the values if given the other values).Describe the extension of the breeder's equation to multiple correlated characters.Design experiments to quantify genetic variance and heritability.Distinguish between the application of genotype-by-environment interactions to local adaptation vs phenotypic plasticity.Explain how genetic correlations and tradeoffs arise and interpret empirical evidence.Explain the principle of QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) mapping and apply it to single locus analysisInfer (calculate) genetic variance components for continuous traits from any of the major methods used to infer them (One way ANOVA, covariance among relatives, realized heritability)Interpret reaction normsPerform a one-way ANOVAPredict the mean and variance of a quantitative trait from allelic frequencies and effects.Predict/interpret the outcome of a hybrid cross (inter or intraspecific) for the early generation hybrids (F1, F2, BC) in terms of additive, dominance and epistatic interactions.Relate genetic covariances to trade-offs between competing selection pressures (e.g. selection for more vs larger eggs).Use fitness functions (the correlation between ecological traits and fitness) to describe selection and predict responses.