• Define gene flow and genetic drift (and founder effect) and explain how they influence allele frequencies in populations [BIOL 1010]
  • Define Mendel’s two laws of heredity that explain the transmission of traits from one generation to the next [BIOL 1010] [BIOL 1030]
  • Demonstrate an understanding of molecular phylogenetics, including the concept of tracing the evolution history of genes (e.g. gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer). [BIOL 1010]
  • Describe how abiotic factors influence the distribution and abundance of organisms [BIOL 2060]
  • Explain and illustrate the fundamental biochemistry required in the application of modern techniques of molecular biology: (i) screen complementary (cDNA) and genomic libraries to identify and clone specific DNA (gene) sequences; (ii) DNA sequencing [BIOL 2030]
  • Explain how connectivity can influence extinction of metapopulations [BIOL 2060]
  • Recall the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a key method in molecular biology.
  • Use and know when to make use of common biological research tools such as compound microscopes, gel electrophoresis units, pipettors and micropipettors, bioinformatics tools, and enzyme assays. [BIOL 1010] [BIOL 1011] [BIOL 1030]
  • Analyze data using basic statistical techniques (mean, standard deviation, n, chi-square test). [BIOL 1010] [BIOL 1011] [BIOL 1030]
  • Describe and diagram the structure of DNA. [BIOL 2030]
  • Describe how DNA is transcribed to RNA and how RNA is translated into proteins. [BIOL 2030]
  • Describe in detail restriction endonucleases, their recognition sequences in DNA, and their application in the Southern blot and hybridization technique for diagnosis of human genetic disease. [BIOL 2030]
  • Explain the basic process of evolution by natural selection (following from what are sometimes called Darwin's postulates). [BIOL 2040]
  • Explain the concept of heritability in terms of the genetic vs. environmental variance for a trait [BIOL 2040]
  • Interpret phylogenies, and use phylogenies to test hypotheses about evolution (e.g. adaptation, speciation etc) [BIOL 2040]
  • Outline examples of positive (e.g. mutualism, symbiosis, facilitation) and negative (e.g. competition, predation, parasitism) biological interactions [BIOL 2060]
  • Use the Hardy-Weinberg principle to calculate expected genotype and allele frequencies (1 Locus, 2 Alleles) [BIOL 1010]
  • Apply the Mendelian principles of heredity for both autosomal and sex-linked inheritance. [BIOL 2030]
  • Comprehend the basic principles of population and quantitative genetics, and give examples of their application to real biological systems. [BIOL 2030]
  • Define and explain the four evolutionary forces, mutation, selection, drift and migration. [BIOL 2040]
  • Explain how complex genetic systems lead to modifications of the basic principles of Mendelian inheritance. [BIOL 2030]
  • Express the concepts of evolution as changes in allele frequencies and the Hardy-Weinberg principle.
  • Use the BIDE (births, deaths, immigration, emigration), exponential and logistic population growth models to make predictions [BIOL 2060]